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Als Cheat wird die Möglichkeit bezeichnet, in einem Computerspiel selbst oder durch externe Programme das Spiel in einer nicht dem gewöhnlichen Spielverlauf entsprechenden Weise zu beeinflussen. Gefragte Cheats und Lösungen für alle Systeme. Special: Cheat der Woche: Grand Theft Auto V (PC). Cheat-Suche: Suche in. allen Systemen, PC. Das große Spiele-Portal mit News, Tests, Tipps, Cheats und Lösungen für alle PC- und Konsolenspiele (PC, PS4, PS3, Xbox One, Xbox , Wii U, Wii). Cheats zu allen Spielen für PC, PS4, XBox One, Switch, VR & Handhelds. Als Cheat (englisch für Betrug, Schwindel) wird die Möglichkeit bezeichnet, in einem Computerspiel selbst oder durch externe Programme das Spiel in einer.


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Acta Anatomica. Running through the Ages 2nd ed. Encyclopedia of Deserts. Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press. It's not what you'd expect".

The Telegraph. Retrieved 24 March International Wildlife Encyclopedia. New York: Marshall Cavendish. In Gittleman, J. Carnivore Behavior, Ecology, and Evolution.

New York: Springer. The American Journal of Physiology. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal. International Zoo News. In Schötz, S. Department of Linguistics and Phonetics, Lund University.

Gothenburg: University of Gothenburg. In Eklund, A. Bibcode : PLoSO.. Journal of Arid Environments. Bibcode : JArEn.. Mammals of the Holy Land. Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press.

The Journal of Wildlife Management. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. African Journal of Ecology. National Geographic Research and Exploration.

Journal of Animal Ecology. Zoo Biology. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. B: Biological Sciences. International Zoo Yearbook. Research, Conservation and Management of an Ecosystem Chicago : 1— Nature Conservation 5 : 87— Animal Behaviour.

Cat News 46 : 4—7. The Tribune. Retrieved 26 March In Sharma, B. Cat News. Retrieved 8 January Forest Stewardship Council.

Retrieved 18 May Forest Ecology and Management. Volume 1 : Bibcode : PLoSO Retrieved 19 March Clinton Foundation. Illegal trade in cheetahs Acinonyx jubatus.

Retrieved 4 May United Nations Development Programme , Iran. Tehran Times. Retrieved 25 April Deccan Herald. Retrieved 5 April The Hindu. Archived from the original PDF on 20 December Press Information Bureau, Government of India.

Retrieved 26 April The Times of India. Retrieved 29 April The Atlantic Magazine. Smithsonian Magazine.

The Royal Hunt in Eurasian history. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. In Mair, V. Contact and Exchange in the Ancient World.

Hawai'i: University of Hawai'i Press. Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy. Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies.

Journal of Mosaic Research. In Littlewood, A. Byzantine Garden Culture. Washington, D. In Asutay-Effenberger, N.

Mainz: Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum. Conservation Biology. Biology of Reproduction. Saint Louis Zoo. Retrieved 19 April Louis Zoo cheetah gives birth to record eight cubs".

The Burlington Magazine. New Delhi: Permanent Black. The Indian Express. The Truth About Cars. Retrieved 20 December Connecticut: Greenwood Press.

In Towheed, S. New Readings in the Literature of British India, c. Stuttgart: Ibidem-Verlag. Roger Ebert's Movie Yearbook Missouri: Andrews McMeel Publishing.

The New York Times. Atlas Obscura. Retrieved 25 March Encyclopedia of Television Shows, through 2nd ed.

New York: Dorling Kindersley. South Africa Online. Extant Carnivora species. Suborder Feliformia. African palm civet N.

Marsh mongoose A. Bushy-tailed mongoose B. Alexander's kusimanse C. Yellow mongoose C. Pousargues's mongoose D. Angolan slender mongoose G. Ethiopian dwarf mongoose H.

Short-tailed mongoose H. White-tailed mongoose I. Liberian mongoose L. Gambian mongoose M. Selous' mongoose P. Meller's mongoose R.

Meerkat S. Spotted hyena C. Brown hyena H. Aardwolf P. Family Felidae. Cheetah A. Caracal C. Bay cat C. European wildcat F. Ocelot L.

Serval L. Canada lynx L. Pallas's cat O. Marbled cat P. Fishing cat P. Cougar P. Jaguarundi H. Lion P. Clouded leopard N. Family Viverridae. Binturong A.

Small-toothed palm civet A. Sulawesi palm civet M. Masked palm civet P. Golden wet-zone palm civet P. Owston's palm civet C. Otter civet C.

Hose's palm civet D. Banded palm civet H. Banded linsang P. African civet C. Abyssinian genet G. Central African oyan P.

Malabar large-spotted civet V. Small Indian civet V. Family Eupleridae. Fossa C. Eastern falanouc E.

Malagasy civet F. Ring-tailed mongoose G. Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose G. Narrow-striped mongoose M. Brown-tailed mongoose S. Suborder Caniformia cont.

Giant panda A. Sun bear H. Sloth bear M. Spectacled bear T. American black bear U. Molina's hog-nosed skunk C. Hooded skunk M. Sunda stink badger M.

Southern spotted skunk S. Eastern lowland olingo B. Ring-tailed cat B. White-nosed coati N. Western mountain coati N.

Kinkajou P. Crab-eating raccoon P. Red panda A. South American fur seal A. Northern fur seal C. Steller sea lion E. Australian sea lion N.

South American sea lion O. New Zealand sea lion P. California sea lion Z. Walrus O. Hooded seal C. Bearded seal E. Grey seal H. Ribbon seal H. Leopard seal H.

Weddell seal L. Crabeater seal L. Northern elephant seal M. Mediterranean monk seal M. Ross seal O. Harp seal P. Spotted seal P. Caspian seal P.

Family Canidae includes dogs. Sus familiares no lo felicitaron por la boda y lo acusaban de malmezclado. Lo presenciaron treinta mil personas.

Es a partir de aquellos hechos cuando se puede empezar a hablar, en su sentido moderno, de los chuetas. Una vez finalizados los autos de fe se pintaba un cuadro con el condenado portando el sambenito e indicando el nombre de su poseedor.

Por contra, la sociedad circundante, especialmente las instituciones civiles y religiosas, se armaron de un corpus doctrinal de resistencia a la igualdad, a partir de La fe triunfante , que se desarrolla en el siglo XVIII y ha perdurado hasta el XX.

Ambas estrategias provocaron graves conflictos. A su vez al abolirse nuevamente, en se vuelve asaltar el barrio y saquear los comercios.

Por primera vez desde el siglo XVI un chueta ocupaba cargos institucionales de un nivel equiparable. De Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre.

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Prepared for endless rock-related puns? As more such individuals were observed it was seen that they had non-retractable claws like the cheetah.

In Pocock described these individuals as a new species by the name of Acinonyx rex "king cheetah". Abel Chapman considered it a colour morph of the normally spotted cheetah.

In two female cheetahs that had mated with a wild male from Transvaal at the De Wildt Cheetah and Wildlife Centre South Africa gave birth to one king cheetah each; subsequently, more king cheetahs were born at the Centre.

The cheetah is a lightly built, spotted cat characterised by a small rounded head, a short snout , black tear-like facial streaks, a deep chest, long thin legs and a long tail.

Its slender, canine-like form is highly adapted for speed, and contrasts sharply with the robust build of the big cats genus Panthera.

The coat is typically tawny to creamy white or pale buff darker in the mid-back portion. The mane starts out as a cape of long, loose blue to grey hair in juveniles.

The head is small and more rounded compared to the big cats. The eyes are set high and have round pupils.

The role of these streaks is not well understood—they may protect the eyes from the sun's glare a helpful feature as the cheetah hunts mainly during the day , or they could be used to define facial expressions.

The cheetah is superficially similar to the leopard, but the leopard has rosettes instead of spots and lacks tear streaks. The serval resembles the cheetah in physical build, but is significantly smaller, has a shorter tail and its spots fuse to form stripes on the back.

Sharply contrasting with the big cats in its morphology, the cheetah shows several adaptations for prolonged chases to catch prey at some of the fastest recorded speeds.

This allows cheetahs to rapidly regain their stamina after a chase. The limbs of the cheetah are longer than what is typical for other cats its size; the thigh muscles are large, and the tibia and fibula are held close together making the lower legs less likely to rotate.

This reduces the risk of losing balance during runs, but compromises the ability to climb. The highly reduced clavicle is connected through ligaments to the scapula , whose pendulum-like motion increases the stride length and assists in shock absorption.

The cheetah resembles the smaller cats in cranial features, and in having a long and flexible spine, as opposed to the stiff and short one in other large felids.

The mouth can not be opened as widely as in other cats given the shorter length of muscles between the jaw and the skull.

The cheetah has a total of 30 teeth; the dental formula is 3. The sharp, narrow carnassials are larger than those of leopards and lions , suggesting the cheetah can consume larger amount of food in a given time period.

The small, flat canines are used to bite the throat and suffocate the prey. A study gave the bite force quotient BFQ of the cheetah as , close to that for the lion , suggesting that adaptations for a lighter skull may not have reduced the power of the cheetah's bite.

The slightly curved claws, shorter as well as straighter than those of other cats, lack a protective sheath and are partly retractable.

This significantly sharpens the vision and enables the cheetah to swiftly locate prey against the horizon. The cheetah is the fastest land animal.

Contrary to the common belief that cheetahs hunt by simply chasing its prey at high speeds, the findings of two studies in observing hunting cheetahs using GPS collars show that cheetahs hunt at speeds much lower than the highest recorded for them during most of the chase, interspersed with a few short bursts lasting only seconds when they attain peak speeds.

In one of the studies, the average speed recorded during the high speed phase was The highest recorded value was The researchers suggested that a hunt consists of two phases—an initial fast acceleration phase when the cheetah tries to catch up with the prey, followed by slowing down as it closes in on it, the deceleration varying by the prey in question.

The peak acceleration observed was 2. Speed and acceleration values for a hunting cheetah may be different from those for a non-hunter because while engaged in the chase, the cheetah is more likely to be twisting and turning and may be running through vegetation.

However, a study recorded the average temperature of cheetahs after hunts to be Cheetahs are active mainly during the day, [66] whereas other carnivores such as leopards and lions are active mainly at night; [62] [99] These larger carnivores can kill cheetahs and steal their kills; [58] hence, the diurnal tendency of cheetahs helps them avoid larger predators in areas where they are sympatric , such as the Okavango Delta.

In areas where the cheetah is the major predator such as farmlands in Botswana and Namibia , activity tends to increase at night.

The lunar cycle can also influence the cheetah's routine—activity might increase on moonlit nights as prey can be sighted easily, though this comes with the danger of encountering larger predators.

Cheetahs often inspect their vicinity at observation points such as elevations to check for prey or larger carnivores; even while resting, they take turns at keeping a lookout.

Cheetahs have a flexible and complex social structure and tend to be more gregarious than several other cats except the lion.

Individuals typically avoid one another but are generally amicable; males may fight over territories or access to females in oestrus , and on rare occasions such fights can result in severe injury and death.

Females are not social and have minimal interaction with other individuals, barring the interaction with males when they enter their territories or during the mating season.

Some females, generally mother and offspring or siblings, may rest beside one another during the day. Females tend to lead a solitary life or live with offspring in undefended home ranges ; young females often stay close to their mothers for life but young males leave their mother's range to live elsewhere.

Some males are territorial, and group together for life forming coalitions that collectively defend a territory which ensures maximum access to females—this is unlike the behaviour of the male lion who mates with a particular group pride of females.

All males in the coalition typically have equal access to kills when the group hunts together, and possibly also to females who may enter their territory.

A coalition generally has a greater chance of encountering and acquiring females for mating, however, its large membership demands greater resources than do solitary males.

Unlike many other felids, among cheetahs, females tend to occupy larger areas compared to males. As such, the size of their home range depends on the distribution of prey in a region.

Males are generally less nomadic than females; often males in coalitions and sometimes solitary males staying far from coalitions establish territories.

Territoriality is preferred only if females tend to be more sedentary, which is more feasible in areas with plenty of prey.

Some males, called floaters, switch between territoriality and nomadism depending on the availability of females. Generally, the female can not escape on her own; the males themselves leave after they lose interest in her.

They may smell the spot she was sitting or lying on to determine if she was in oestrus. The cheetah is a vocal felid with a broad repertoire of calls and sounds; the acoustic features and the use of many of these have been studied in detail.

Another major means of communication is by scent —the male will often investigate urine-marked places territories or common landmarks for a long time by crouching on his forelegs and carefully smelling the place.

Then he will stand close to an elevated spot such as tree trunks, stumps or rocks with the tail raised, and the penis pointed at the area to be marked; other observing individuals might repeat the ritual.

Females may also show marking behaviour but less prominently than males do. Among females, those in oestrus will show maximum urine-marking, and their excrement can attract males from far off.

In Botswana, cheetahs are frequently captured by ranchers to protect livestock by setting up traps in traditional marking spots; the calls of the trapped cheetah can attract more cheetahs to the place.

Touch and visual cues are other ways of signalling in cheetahs. Social meetings involve mutual sniffing of the mouth, anus and genitals.

Individuals will groom one another, lick each other's faces and rub cheeks. However, they seldom lean on or rub their flanks against each other.

The tear streaks on the face can sharply define expressions at close range. Mothers probably use the alternate light and dark rings on the tail to signal their cubs to follow them.

Its primary prey are medium-sized ungulates. They are the major component of the diet in certain areas, such as Dama and Dorcas gazelles in the Sahara, impala in the eastern and southern African woodlands, springbok in the arid savannas to the south and Thomson's gazelle in the Serengeti.

Smaller antelopes like the common duiker are a frequent prey in the southern Kalahari. In Namibia cheetahs are the major predators of livestock.

Generally only groups of cheetahs coalitions or mother and cubs will try to kill larger prey; mothers with cubs especially look out for larger prey and tend to be more successful than females without cubs.

Individuals on the periphery of the prey herd are common targets; vigilant prey which would react quickly on seeing the cheetah are not preferred.

Cheetahs hunt primarily throughout the day, sometimes with peaks at dawn and dusk; they tend to avoid larger predators like the primarily nocturnal lion.

Alternatively the cheetah can lie hidden in cover and wait for the prey to come nearer. A stalking cheetah assumes a partially crouched posture, with the head lower than the shoulders; it will move slowly and be still at times.

The cheetah can give up the chase if it is detected by the prey early or if it can not make a kill quickly.

Cheetahs kill their prey by tripping it during the chase by hitting its rump with the forepaw or using the strong dewclaw to knock the prey off its balance, bringing it down with much force and sometimes even breaking some of its limbs.

A bite on the nape of the neck or the snout and sometimes on the skull suffices to kill smaller prey. Once the hunt is over, the prey is taken near a bush or under a tree; the cheetah, highly exhausted after the chase, rests beside the kill and pants heavily for five to 55 minutes.

Meanwhile cheetahs nearby, who did not take part in the hunt, might feed on the kill immediately. Groups of cheetah devour the kill peacefully, though minor noises and snapping may be observed.

They typically begin with the hindquarters, and then progress toward the abdomen and the spine. Ribs are chewed on at the ends, and the limbs are not generally torn apart while eating.

Unless the prey is very small, the skeleton is left almost intact after feeding on the meat. To defend itself or its prey, a cheetah will hold its body low to the ground and snarl with its mouth wide open, the eyes staring threateningly ahead and the ears folded backward.

This may be accompanied by moans, hisses and growls, and hitting the ground with the forepaws. Cheetahs are induced ovulators and can breed throughout the year.

Females can have their first litter at two to three years of age. A female can conceive again after 17 to 20 months from giving birth, or even sooner if a whole litter is lost.

Males can breed at less than two years of age in captivity, but this may be delayed in the wild until the male acquires a territory. Urine-marking in males can become more pronounced when a female in their vicinity comes into oestrus.

Males, sometimes even those in coalitions, fight among one another to secure access to the female. No courtship behaviour is observed; the male immediately secures hold of the female's nape, and copulation takes place.

The pair then ignore each other, but meet and copulate a few more times three to five times a day for the next two to three days before finally parting ways.

After a gestation of nearly three months, a litter of one to eight cubs is born though those of three to four cubs are more common.

Births take place at 20—25 minute intervals in a sheltered place such as thick vegetation. The eyes are shut at birth, and open in four to 11 days.

Newborn cubs might spit a lot and make soft churring noises; they start walking by two weeks. Their nape, shoulders and back are thickly covered with long bluish grey hair, called a mantle, which gives them a mohawk-type appearance; this fur is shed as the cheetah grows older.

Though she tries to make minimal noise she usually can not defend her litter from these predators. Deaths also occur from starvation if their mothers abandon them, fires, or pneumonia because of exposure to bad weather.

Cubs start coming out of the lair at two months of age, trailing after their mother wherever she goes. At this point the mother nurses less and brings solid food to the cubs; they retreat away from the carcass in fear initially, but gradually start eating it.

The cubs might purr as the mother licks them clean after the meal. Weaning occurs at four to six months. To train her cubs in hunting, the mother will catch and let go of live prey in front of her cubs.

However, they may have to wait until as long as 15 months of age to make a successful kill on their own. At around 20 months, offspring become independent; mothers might have conceived again by then.

Siblings may remain together for a few more months before parting ways. While females stay close to their mothers, males move farther off.

Cheetahs appear to be less selective in habitat choice than other felids and inhabit a variety of ecosystems ; areas with greater availability of prey, good visibility and minimal chances of encountering larger predators are preferred.

They seldom occur in tropical forests. An open area with some cover, such as diffused bushes, is probably ideal for the cheetah because it needs to stalk and pursue its prey over a distance.

This also minimises the risk of encountering larger carnivores. Unlike the big cats, the cheetah tends to occur in low densities typically between 0.

Cheetahs in eastern and southern Africa occur mostly in savannas like the Kalahari and Serengeti. In central, northern and western Africa cheetahs inhabit arid mountain ranges and valleys; in the harsh climate of the Sahara, cheetahs prefer high mountains, which receive more rainfall than the surrounding desert.

The vegetation and water resources in these mountains supports antelopes. In prehistoric times, the cheetah was distributed throughout Africa, Asia and Europe.

As of , cheetahs occur in just nine per cent of their erstwhile range in Africa, mostly in unprotected areas. In the past until the midth century, the cheetah ranged across vast stretches in Asia, from the Arabian Peninsula in the west to the Indian subcontinent in the east, and as far north as the Aral and Caspian Seas.

In Iraq, cheetahs were reported from Basra in the s. Conservation efforts in the s stabilised the population, but prey species declined again in the wake of the Iranian Revolution and the Iran—Iraq War — , leading to a significant contraction of the cheetah's historical range in the region.

The first survey of cheetah populations in Africa by Norman Myers in estimated a population of 15, individuals throughout Sub-Saharan Africa. The range covered most of eastern and southern Africa, except for the desert region on the western coast of modern-day Angola and Namibia.

The cheetah occurs mostly in eastern and southern Africa; its presence in Asia is limited to the central deserts of Iran, though there have been unconfirmed reports of sightings in Afghanistan, Iraq and Pakistan in the last few decades.

Another population, spread in Kenya and Tanzania, comprises 1, individuals. All other cheetahs occur in small, fragmented groups mostly less than individuals in each throughout the range.

Populations are feared to be declining, especially those of adults. The cheetah is threatened by several factors, like habitat loss and fragmentation of populations.

Habitat loss is caused mainly by the introduction of commercial land use, such as agriculture and industry; [1] it is further aggravated by ecological degradation, like bush encroachment common in southern Africa.

Shortage of prey and conflict with other species such as humans and large carnivores are other major threats. Some tribes, like the Maasai people in Tanzania, have been reported to use cheetah skins in ceremonies.

Until the s, cheetahs and other carnivores were frequently killed to protect livestock in Africa. Gradually the understanding of cheetah ecology increased and their falling numbers became a matter of concern.

The De Wildt Cheetah and Wildlife Centre was set up in in South Africa to provide care for wild cheetahs regularly trapped or injured by Namibian farmers.

The Global Cheetah Action Plan Workshop in laid emphasis on the need for a rangewide survey of wild cheetahs to demarcate areas for conservation efforts and on creating awareness through training programs.

National conservation plans have been developed successfully for several African countries. During the early s scientists from the Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology Hyderabad proposed a plan to clone Asiatic cheetahs from Iran for reintroduction in India, but Iran denied the proposal.

Opponents stated the plan was "not a case of intentional movement of an organism into a part of its native range". The cheetah shows little aggression toward humans, and can be tamed easily, as it has been since antiquity.

The evidence for this is mainly pictorial; for instance, a Sumerian seal dating back to c. However, Thomas Allsen argues that the depicted animal might be a large dog.

In comparison, theories of the cheetah's taming in Egypt are stronger and include timelines proposed on this basis.

Ancient Egyptians believed the spirits of deceased pharaohs were taken away by cheetahs. Rock carvings depicting cheetahs dating back to — years ago have been found in Twyfelfontein ; little else has been discovered in connection to the taming of cheetahs or other cats in southern Africa.

Hunting cheetahs are known in pre-Islamic Arabic art from Yemen. In the Middle East, the cheetah would accompany the nobility to hunts in a special seat on the back of the saddle.

Taming was an elaborate process and could take a year to complete. In eastern Asia, records are confusing as regional names for the leopard and the cheetah may be used interchangeably.

Chinese emperors would use cheetahs, as well as caracals , as gifts. The rampant hunting severely affected the populations of wild animals in India; by , cheetahs had to be imported from Africa.

The first cheetah to be brought into captivity in a zoo was at the Zoological Society of London in Early captive cheetahs showed a high mortality rate, with an average lifespan of 3—4 years.

Recommended management practices for cheetahs include spacious and ample access to outdoors, stress minimisation by exercise and limited handling, and following proper hand-rearing protocols especially for pregnant females.

Cheetahs are poor breeders in captivity, while wild individuals are far more successful; [] this has also been linked to increased stress levels in captive individuals.

Louis Zoo , setting a record for the most births recorded by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums. The cheetah has been widely portrayed in a variety of artistic works.

In Bacchus and Ariadne , an oil painting by the 16th-century Italian painter Titian , the chariot of the Greek god Dionysus Bacchus is depicted as being drawn by two cheetahs.

The cheetahs in the painting were previously considered to be leopards. The painting depicts a cheetah, hooded and collared by two Indian servants, along with a stag it was supposed to prey upon.

It portrays a creature with a woman's head and a cheetah's body often misidentified as a leopard's. Because only two dozen or fewer chassis were built, with only a dozen complete cars, the Cheetah was never homologated for competition beyond prototype status; its production ended in A variety of literature mentions the cheetah.

The film Duma was based loosely on this book. The cheetah has often been featured in marketing and animation. In , Frito-Lay introduced Chester Cheetah , an anthropomorphic cheetah, as the mascot for their snack food Cheetos.

Barbara Ann Minerva, alias The Cheetah. Two cheetahs are depicted standing upright and supporting a crown in the coat of arms of the Free State South Africa.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Large feline of the genus Acinonyx. This article is about the animal.

For other uses, see Cheetah disambiguation. Temporal range: Pleistocene — Holocene , 1. Conservation status. Schreber , Cheetah skeleton. Note the nearly triangular skull, the deep chest and long limbs.

The blunt claws and the sharp, curved dewclaw. Play media. Female with her cubs in Phinda Private Game Reserve. A group of males in Maasai Mara.

Male marking his territory. A cheetah in pursuit of a Thomson's gazelle. A cheetah strangling an impala by a throat bite.

Bacchus and Ariadne by Titian , The Caress by Fernand Khnopff , US Fish and Wildlife Service. Retrieved 24 April Mammalian Species.

Archived from the original PDF on 4 March London: W. London: Oxford University Press. In Marker, L. Cheetahs: Biology and Conservation. London: Academic Press.

An Intermediate Greek—English Lexicon. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Archivado desde el original el 21 de julio de Consultado el 18 de octubre de Archivado desde el original el 3 de mayo de Archivado desde el original el 3 de diciembre de Archivado desde el original el 28 de junio de II, pp.

II, p. Quince siglos de racismo , p. Archivado desde el original el 20 de junio de

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